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There are essentially nine properties of episodic memory that collectively distinguish it from other types of memory.

Other types of memory may exhibit a few of these properties, but only episodic memory has all nine: The formation of new episodic memories requires the medial temporal lobe, a structure that includes the hippocampus.

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Aside from Tulving, others named the important aspects of recollection which includes visual imagery, narrative structure, retrieval of semantic information and the feelings of familiarity.

For example, a fear of dogs after being bitten by a dog is a result of episodic learning.

A current situation may cue retrieval of a previous episode, so that context that colours the previous episode is experienced at the immediate moment.

The agent is provided with a means of associating previous feelings with current situations.

Knowing is more factual (semantic) whereas remembering is a feeling that is located in the past (episodic).

Tulving has seminally defined three key properties of episodic memory recollection.All episodic memories concerning a dog will then reference this single semantic representation of "dog" and, likewise, all new experiences with the dog will modify the single semantic representation of that dog.Together, semantic and episodic memory make up our declarative memory.For example, anterograde amnesia, from damage of the medial temporal lobe, is an impairment of declarative memory that affects both episodic and semantic memory operations.Originally, Tulving proposed that episodic and semantic memory were separate systems that competed with each other in retrieval.Some researchers believe that the prefrontal cortex helps organize information for more efficient storage, drawing upon its role in executive function.

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