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He built five new bridges, a new chapel for the College of Sorbonne, and a palace for himself, the Palais Cardinal, which he bequeathed to Louis XIII.After Richelieu's death in 1642, it was the renamed the Palais-Royal.Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508.

The conflicts ended when pretender to the throne Henry IV, after converting to Catholicism to gain entry to the capital, entered the city in 1594 and claimed the crown of France.

This king made several improvements to the capital during his reign: he completed the construction of Paris's first uncovered, sidewalk-lined bridge, the Pont Neuf, built a Louvre extension connecting it to the Tuileries Palace, and created the first Paris residential square, the Place Royale, now Place des Vosges.

In the late 12th century, Philip Augustus extended the Louvre fortress to defend the city against river invasions from the west, gave the city its first walls between 11, rebuilt its bridges to either side of its central island, and paved its main thoroughfares.

During the Hundred Years' War, Paris was occupied by England-friendly Burgundian forces from 1418, before being occupied outright by the English when Henry V of England entered the French capital in 1420; it would remain under English occupation until 1436.

Fortification of the Île-de-France failed to prevent sacking by Vikings in 845 but Paris's strategic importance—with its bridges preventing ships from passing—was established by successful defence in the Siege of Paris (885–86).

In 987, Hugh Capet, Count of Paris (comte de Paris) and Duke of the Franks (duc des Francs), was elected King of the Franks (roi des Francs).The city is a commune and department, and the heart of the 12,012-square-kilometre (4,638-square-mile) Île-de-France region (colloquially known as the 'Paris Region'), whose 2016 population of 12,142,802 represented roughly 18 percent of the population of France.Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts.Under the rule of the Capetian kings, Paris gradually became the largest and most prosperous city in France.The Palais de la Cité, the royal residence, was located at the western end of the Île de la Cité.In the late 16th-century French Wars of Religion, Paris was a stronghold of the Catholic League, the organisers of 24 August 1572 St.

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