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President Sanchez de Lozada resigns under pressure of protests and is succeeded by Carlos Mesa.

Energy protests2004 April - President Mesa signs natural gas export deal with Argentina.

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2005 January - Rising fuel prices trigger large-scale anti-government protests and blockades in Santa Cruz, the country's largest and wealthiest city, and in El Alto, near La Paz.

Civic and business leaders in Santa Cruz push for autonomy for the province.

1824 - Venezuelan freedom fighter Simon Bolivar, after whom Bolivia is named, liberates the country from Spanish rule.

1825 - Bolivia becomes independent with Simon Bolivar as its president.

1993 - Banzer withdraws from the presidential race, which is won by Gonzalo Sanchez de Lozada. 1998 - Banzer tells the United Nations that he is committed to freeing Bolivia from drugs before the end of his term in 2002.

1999 - Encouraged by moves to prosecute former Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet, opposition demands inquiry into Banzer's role during the repression of the 1970s.

1982 - Torrelio resigns as the economy worsens; military junta hands over power to civilian administration led by Siles Zuazo, who heads a leftist government.

1983 - US and European countries resume aid following the introduction of austerity measures.

1967 - US helps suppress peasant uprising led by Ernesto "Che" Guevara, who is killed after being betrayed by peasants.

1969 - Vice-President Siles Salinas replaces Barrientos who is killed in plane crash, but Salinas is himself deposed by the army, which rules with increased severity.

1903 - Bolivia loses the rubber-rich province of Acre to Brazil. Military coups1952 - Peasants and miners overthrow military regime; Victor Paz Estenssoro returns from exile to become president and introduces social and economic reforms, including universal suffrage, nationalisation of tin mines and land redistribution, and improves education and the status of indigenous peoples.

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